Xavier Rodó i López

Institut de Salut Global Barcelona

The impact of climate on neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has been extensively discussed, but there is a lack of mechanistic evidence establishing a direct link. In this study, we compiled a unique dataset to investigate and model the factors driving the spillover dynamics of Polycystic Equinococosis (PE), a neglected zoonotic disease with high case fatality rates, in Pan- Amazonia. PE spillover occurs through complex wildlife–human interactions facilitated by hunting and wild meat manipulation. Our study demonstrates that temperature stability promotes the sylvatic circulation of PE, while El Niño- Southern Oscillation extreme events disrupt hunting patterns, thereby affecting the risk of PE spillover to humans. We determined ecological, environmental, climatic, and hunting-related factors that predict animal infections and human spillover in modeled simulations. Our findings provide direct evidence attributing the effects of climate to NTDs in Pan-Amazonia, with large implications for similar hunting-related zoonoses.The study was highlighted in the Front Matter and received a specially dedicated commentary by Prof. M. Ghil.